A new approach called AIOS (LLM Agent Operating System) is set to transform the development and deployment of agents based on large language models (LLMs). By integrating LLMs into operating systems, AIOS creates an operating system that functions like a brain, marking a step towards Artificial General Intelligence (AGI).

The original preprint: Mei, K., Li, Z., Xu, S., Ye, R., Ge, Y. and Zhang, Y., 2024. LLM Agent Operating System. arXiv preprint arXiv:2403.16971.

Key features and benefits of AIOS:

  1. Resource allocation optimization: AIOS improves the allocation of resources, ensuring efficient utilization of the LLM by agent requests.
  2. Seamless context switching: It simplifies the process of switching context between agents, enabling smooth transitions and maintaining continuity.
  3. Concurrent agent execution: AIOS allows multiple agents to run simultaneously, enhancing overall system performance and responsiveness.
  4. Comprehensive agent toolset: It provides a wide array of tools for agents to leverage, empowering them with expanded capabilities.
  5. Robust access control: AIOS implements strict access control measures to govern agent permissions and maintain system security.
Travel agent exaple

Example of how an agent (i.e., Travel Agent) requires both LLM level and OS
level resources and functions to complete a task

The LLM kernel

At the heart of AIOS lies the LLM kernel, a specialized component designed to manage LLM-related activities through a suite of dedicated modules:

  • Agent scheduler: This module optimizes the scheduling of agent requests, ensuring efficient utilization of the LLM resources. By prioritizing and managing the request queue, the Agent Scheduler maximizes throughput and minimizes latency.
  • Context manager: The Context Manager is responsible for saving and restoring the LLM’s generation progress, allowing seamless resumption of tasks even if interrupted. It also manages the context window, ensuring optimal utilization of the LLM’s context capacity.
  • Memory manager: AIOS includes a Memory Manager that provides short-term memory for each agent’s interactions. This allows agents to maintain a local state and access relevant information quickly, enhancing their responsiveness and performance.
  • Storage manager: For long-term persistence, the Storage Manager securely saves agent interactions. This enables agents to access historical data, learn from past experiences, and make informed decisions based on extensive knowledge.
  • Tool manager: The Tool Manager oversees the external API tools that agents can utilize. By integrating a wide range of tools, AIOS empowers agents to perform complex tasks and access a wealth of information and functionality.
  • Access manager: To ensure privacy and security, the Access Manager enforces strict access control policies between agents. It governs permissions, authentication, and authorization, preventing unauthorized access and protecting sensitive data.

Dev-friendly interface and SDK

AIOS offers an intuitive LLM system call interface, allowing developers to easily interact with the underlying LLM kernel. Additionally, the AIOS SDK provides a comprehensive set of tools and libraries, enabling developers to create complex agent applications with ease. The SDK abstracts complex functionalities, making agent development more accessible and efficient.

Three-layered architecture

AIOS adopts a three-layered architecture to ensure modularity, scalability, and performance:

  1. Application layer: This layer is where agent applications are developed and deployed. Developers leverage the AIOS SDK to create intelligent and interactive agents that can perform a wide range of tasks.
  2. Kernel layer: The kernel layer consists of two main components – the OS Kernel and the LLM Kernel. The OS Kernel handles regular operating system tasks, while the LLM Kernel is dedicated to managing LLM-specific activities, ensuring optimal performance and resource utilization.
  3. Hardware layer: The hardware layer encompasses the physical components of the system, such as the CPU, GPU, memory, and storage devices. AIOS efficiently leverages these resources to provide a seamless and high-performance agent execution environment.

Experimental results

The experiments conducted on AIOS demonstrate its ability to run multiple agents concurrently with remarkable reliability and efficiency. The LLM responses remained consistent even when agent requests were paused and resumed, ensuring the integrity of the generated outputs. Moreover, AIOS’s intelligent scheduling mechanism significantly outperformed sequential agent execution, achieving better balance in waiting and processing times.

AIOS architecture

An overview of the AIOS architecture

Future research directions

While AIOS presents a groundbreaking approach to LLM-based agent development and deployment, there are several exciting avenues for future research and improvement:

  • Advanced scheduling algorithms: Developing scheduling algorithms that consider dependencies between agent requests and optimize resource allocation based on priority and urgency.
  • Efficient context management: Exploring techniques to manage context more efficiently, such as context compression and summarization, to maximize the utilization of the LLM’s context window.
  • Optimized memory and storage: Investigating ways to optimize memory and storage architectures to facilitate seamless agent collaboration, such as implementing shared memory pools and hierarchical caching mechanisms.
  • Enhanced safety and privacy: Continuously enhancing the safety and privacy features of AIOS, including advanced encryption techniques, secure communication protocols, and robust access control mechanisms.


AIOS represents a step in the development and deployment of LLM-based agents. By integrating LLMs into the operating system, AIOS creates an intelligent and efficient environment for agent execution. With its comprehensive set of modules, developer-friendly interface, and optimized architecture, AIOS set the foundation for an ecosystem of intelligent agents.

It is also a popular topic, mentioned several times from Andrej Karpathy and published in different blogs.

As researchers continue to explore and expand the capabilities of AIOS, we can anticipate a future where LLM-based agents become increasingly complex, autonomous, and integral to various domains. AIOS opens up many possibilities, paving the way for the next generation of intelligent systems that can understand, reason, and interact with the world in unprecedented ways.

Categorized in:

Deep Learning, Machine Learning,

Last Update: 02/04/2024